Robot Control Systems

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The actuations of the individual joints must be controlled in a coordinated fashion for the manipulator to perform a desired motion cycle. Microprocessor based controller are commonly used. Different type of controller are required for different applications.

Robot controllers can be classified into four(4) categories:

(1)Limited Sequence Control/Controlled Path

  • It can be utilized only for simple motion cycle, e.g, pick and place operation.
  • Implemented by setting limits or mechanical stopd for each joint and sequencing the actuation of the joints to accomplish the cycle.
  • These robots are normally called material transfer devices rather than robots.
  • This simplest robots are pneumatic-powered and have a mechanical controller.

(2)Playback with Point to Point Control (PTP)
  • Playback control means the controller has a memory to record the sequence of motions in a given work cycle & other parameter (speed, locations) and then subsequently playback the work cycle during execution of the program.
  • Individual positions of the robot arm are recorded into memory.
  • These positions are not limited to mechanical stop for each joint as in limited sequence robot.
  • Feedback control is used during motion cycle to confirm that individual joints archieve the specified locations in the program.
  • Only final location of the individual motion elements are controlled, so the patch taken by the arm to reach final location is not controlled.

(3)Playback with Continuous path control
Have the sane playback capability as PTP.
(a)Greater storage capacity
  • number of location that can be recorded into memory is far greater.
  • the movement of the arm and wrist is controlled during the motion.
(b)Interpolation calculation
  • The controlled computers the path between the starting point and the ending point of each move using interpolation routines similar to those used in NC.
  • Servo control is used to continuously regulate the position and speed of the manipulator.
  • The different between continuous path and PTP is the same as in NC.

(4)Intelligent Control
Characteristics that make a robot appear intelligent is its ability to:
  • Interact with its environment
  • Make decisions when things go wrong during the work cycle
  • Communicate with human
It also posses playback capability for both PTP or continuous path control.
This require:
(a)high level computer control
(b)advanced programming language to input the decision making logic & other intelligence into memory

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